Threats, Attacks, and Vulnerabilities

Threats, Attacks, and Vulnerabilities

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Average: 3.8 (8 votes)
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Course
Course
Cybersecurity
Subjects
Subjects
Cybersecurity
Career & Technical Education
Grade Levels
Grade Levels
10
11
12
Duration (hours)
Duration (Approx hours)
60
Overview
In this unit, students will learn to detect and analyze malware and different types of attacks while starting to understand the concepts of penetration and vulnerability testing
Standards
CompTIA Security+ (SYO-601) Objectives 1.1 – 1.8
Cyber Connections
Threats and Vulnerabilities
Networks and Internet
Hardware and Software
Cyber Hygiene
Digital Citizenship
Section Title
Lessons
Accordion Items
Title
1.1 - Compare and contrast different types of social engineering techniques
Content
  • Phishing
  • Smishing
  • Vishing
  • Spam
  • Spam over Internet messaging (SPIM)
  • Spear phishing
  • Dumpster diving
  • Shoulder surfing
  • Pharming
  • Tailgating
  • Eliciting information
  • Whaling
  • Prepending
  • Identity fraud
  • Invoice scams
  • Credential harvesting
  • Reconnaissance
  • Hoax
  • Impersonation
  • Watering hole attack
  • Typo squatting
  • Pretexting
  • Influence campaigns
    • Hybrid warfare
    • Social media
  • Principles (reasons for effectiveness)
    • Authority
    • Intimidation
    • Consensus
    • Scarcity
    • Familiarity
    • Trust
    • Urgency
Title
1.2 - Given a scenario, analyze potential indicators to determine the type of attack
Content
  • Malware
    • Ransomware
    • Trojans
    • Worms
    • Potentially unwanted programs (PUPs)
    • Fileless virus
    • Command and control
    • Bots
    • Cryptomalware
    • Logic bombs
    • Spyware
    • Keyloggers
    • Remote access Trojan (RAT)
    • Rootkit
    • Backdoor
  • Password attacks
    • Spraying
    • Dictionary
    • Brute force
    • Offline
    • Online
    • Rainbow tables
    • Plaintext/unencrypted
  • Physical attacks
    • Malicious universal serial bus (USB) cable
    • Malicious flash drive
    • Card cloning
    • Skimming
  • Adversarial artificial intelligence (AI)
    • Tainted training data for machine learning (ML)
    • Security of machine learning algorithms
  • Supply-chain attacks
  • Cloud-based vs. on-premises attacks
  • Cryptographic attacks
    • Birthday
    • Collision
    • Downgrade
Title
1.3 - Given a scenario, analyze potential indicators associated with application attacks
Content
  • Privilege escalation
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Injections - Structured query language (SQL)
    • Dynamic link library (DLL)
    • Lightweight directory access protocol (LDAP)
    • Extensible markup language (XML)
  • Pointer/object dereference
  • Directory traversal
  • Buffer overflows
  • Race conditions
    • Time of check/time of use
  • Error handling
  • Improper input handling
  • Replay attack
    • Session replays
  • Integer overflow
  • Request forgeries
    • Server-side
    • Client-side
    • Cross-site
  • Application programming interface (API) attacks
  • Resource exhaustion
  • Memory leak
  • Secure sockets layer (SSL) stripping
  • Driver manipulation
    • Shimming
    • Refactoring
  • Pass the has
Title
1.4 - Given a scenario, analyze potential indicators associated with network attacks
Content
  • Wireless
    • Evil twin
    • Rogue access point
    • Bluesnarfing
    • Bluejacking
    • Disassociation
    • Jamming
    • Radio frequency identifier (RFID)
    • Near-field communication (NFC)
    • Initialization vector (IV)
  • Man-in-the-middle
  • Man-in-the-browser
  • Layer 2 attacks
    • Address resolution protocol (ARP) poisoning
    • Media access control (MAC) flooding
    • MAC cloning
  • Domain name system (DNS)
    • Domain hijacking
    • DNS poisoning
    • Universal resource locator (URL) redirection
    • Domain reputation
  • Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS)
    • Network
    • Application
    • Operational technology (OT)
  • Malicious code or script execution
    • PowerShell
    • Python
    • Bash
    • Macros
    • Virtual Basic for Applications (VBA)
Title
1.5 - Explain different threat actors, vectors, and intelligence sources
Content
  • Actors and threats
    • Advanced persistent threat (APT)
    • Insider threats
    • State actors
    • Hacktivists
    • Script kiddies
    • Criminal syndicates
    • Hackers
      • White hat
      • Black hat
      • Gray hat
      • Shadow IT
    • Competitors
  • Attributes of actors
    • Internal/external
    • Level of sophistication/capability
    • Resources/funding
    • Intent/motivation
  • Vectors
    • Direct access
    • Wireless
    • Email
    • Supply chain
    • Social media
    • Removable media
    • Cloud
  • Threat intelligence sources
    • Open source intelligence (OSINT)
    • Closed/proprietary
    • Vulnerability databases
    • Public/private information sharing centers
    • Dark web
    • Indicators of compromise
    • Automated indicator sharing (AIS)
    • Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX)/Trusted Automated eXchange of Indicator Information (TAXII)
    • Predictive analysis
    • Threat maps
    • File/code repositories
  • Research sources
    • Vendor websites
    • Vulnerability feeds
    • Conferences
    • Academic journals
    • Request for comments (RFC)
    • Local industry groups
    • Social media
    • Threat feeds
    • Adversary tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP)
Title
1.6 - Explain the security concerns associated with various types of vulnerabilities
Content
  • Cloud-based vs. on-premises vulnerabilities
  • Zero-day
  • Weak configurations
    • Open permissions
    • Unsecure root accounts
    • Errors
    • Weak encryption
    • Unsecure protocols
    • Default settings
    • Open ports and services
  • Third-party risks
    • Vendor management
    • System integration
    • Lack of vendor support
    • Supply chain
    • Outsourced code development
    • Data storage
  • Improper or weak patch management
    • Firmware
    • Operating system (OS)
    • Applications
  • Legacy platforms
  • Impacts
    • Data loss
    • Data breaches
    • Data exfiltration
    • Identity theft
    • Financial
    • Reputation
    • Availability loss
Title
1.7 - Summarize the techniques used in security assessments
Content
  • Threat hunting
    • Intelligence fusion
    • Threat feeds
    • Advisories and bulletins
    • Maneuver
  • Vulnerability scans
    • False positives
    • False negatives
    • Log reviews
    • Credentialed vs. non-credentialed
    • Intrusive vs. non-intrusive
    • Application
    • Web application
    • Network
    • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE)/Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS)
    • Configuration review
  • Syslog/Security information and event management (SIEM)
    • Review reports
    • Packet capture
    • Data inputs
    • User behavior analysis
    • Sentiment analysis
    • Security monitoring
    • Log aggregation
    • Log collectors
  • Security orchestration, automation, and response (SOAR)
Title
1.8 - Explain the techniques used in penetration testing
Content
  • Penetration testing
    • White-box
    • Black-box
    • Gray-box
    • Rules of engagement
    • Lateral movement
    • Privilege escalation
    • Persistence
    • Cleanup
    • Bug bounty
    • Pivoting
  • Passive and active reconnaissance
    • Drones/unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
    • War flying
    • War driving
    • Footprinting
    • OSINT
  • Exercise types
    • Red-team
    • Blue-team
    • White-team
    • Purple-team